History of Western Music
Western classical music and History
“Western music is a theoretical foundation of fine art. It is one of the most memorable aspects of Western civilization. “Sathyajith Andradi”
Unique features of western music.
Western Music Notations and Musical Scales,
One of the key elements in making music is the “Notes”, musical notes that used to evoke beauty and emotion.
Vowel names used to describe the Notes used in Western music. They are the seven letters A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. The Notes followed by eight letters, followed by the letter A. The distance between the vowels at a distance of eight letters called the “octave”. By arranging eight vowels in a descending order, which completes an “octave”, a musical scale formed. These are two types of music. These are the major scales and minor scales. Western music creation or solo usually based on a specific “Musical Scale”. A music scale built.
These are two types of music. These are Major Scales and Minor Scales. When creating a melody of music or solo, the primary tone is the specific vowels.
Among the notes of Musical Scales, the first vowel known as the tonic exchange holds a special place. The tonic tone is subordinate to the rest of the vowel and can apply to the end of any scale or melody or melody depending on the scale. This very important characteristic of tone-based music called “Tonality”.
Single sound system and multi-sound system
The “melody”, or solo, is an integral part of any musical work. By making several tones in a meaningful way, one tone at a time, a melody created. Here, a fan can only hear one tone at a time and say, that is “Monophonic”.
Early Western music carried a monolithic style. Nevertheless, from the 11th century onwards, this situation changed drastically. In that century, a polyphony (polyphony) system introduced in Europe. Polyphony is a very important characteristic of Western music. It is a form of music based on subtle theoretical principles. A single tone sings and plays at one point in time. If there is another, it played after the first. But in the multivariate system, several melodies are played or sung at the same time.
A simple example is a piano player playing a different position when a singer plays a single. Here, a few melodies produced slightly free from each other. Because of this, it is not difficult for the fan to distinguish the melodies that are been played at the same time.
However, when listening to music composed in the multivariate model, there more than one tone of sounds that can hear at the same time. In fact, this style called the multivariate method because it produces several vowels at the same time. Here, there must be a clear agreement between those few vowels. If not, the music will be a bitter noise instead.
This agreement between several vowels that generated at the same time called “Harmony”.
Music Notes agreement
It is not necessary to use a few tunes simultaneously to produce a vowel harmony. Vowel harmony also achieved by spending the same amount of time with the individual vowel of a single tone. Here the fan can hear the tone of the voice alone and the other sounds that come with it. Thus, the mixing of several vowels at the same time creates “Chords”. Vowels selected according to standard rules to form a vowel compound. However, a vignette composed of a vowel-harmonic style is usually composed of a set of vowel compositions surrounded by a single string. Accordingly, a large number of such vowel combinations generated in one piece at a time.
The melody helps the composer in expressing his musical thoughts. To enjoy any position well, one must grasp it. Therefore, it is not sufficient to listen to the poem only once.
Therefore, the musician will have to perform that solo several times. However, if the same solo repeated many times, the fan will get tired of the stereotypes that emerge. Western classical musicians adopt musical forms to prevent this and to rehearse it so that the solo can better be captured. Some of the more frequently used musical forms are the binary form, the “Binary Form”, the “Ternary Form”, the “Sonata Form”, and the “Rondo Form”.
The binary format is a musical format consisting of two equal parts. The first part presents a musical idea; it supports homage to the basic “Tonic” of the music scale in which fiction is based. The second part is further confirming the idea.
The second part of the fiction ends with a “Tonic” notes. The rigidity of the binary model is striking because it attempts to maintain a balance between the first and the second.
The end of the first part and the beginning of the second part are often “Dominant” to the five-tone character of the scale. Here, the binary format temporarily changes the “Tonality” of fiction. This is a subtle trick used to entertain the fan. This effect, which is common in almost every important classical model, called “Modulation“.
When writing fiction based on the binary format, the first part played twice from beginning to end. The second part then woven twice. Therefore, it is easier for the hearer to enjoy both parts of the fiction. The binary format became very popular among Western musicians in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.
By the end of the eighteenth century, more flexible models such as binary models, such as binary models, became popular. Ternary Form It consists of three main parts. The model also known as the ABA model.
The first part of this format, called A, is a complete musical idea. The beginning and the end of this section obey the tone of the basics Scale of the “Tonic”. The second part presents a somewhat different idea from the one presented in the first part, which based on another scale (ie, B).
The third part deals with the idea of the first part, re-presenting the “Tonic” of the basic scale to the tone. The third part also called because the first part is very similar, or identical.
Part B is clearly different from the rest of the series, so the triangular format eliminates the monotony of music fiction and gives it variety.
The Rondo format is a musical format based on the structure of the ABACA, ABACADA, etc., with the addition of new elements to the ABA pattern in the simple three-dimensional format. Its new features C and D are incompatible. They also have markedly different shapes to B and to A, which frequently rotated. The first part, namely Part A, applied after every new feature of the Rondo model. In addition, in the Rondo format, fiction always ends in section A.
The sonata format is the most important structural design found in Western orchestral music. This sonata-form most commonly used in the classical music genre known as the sonata number. This format called the Sonata Format and should be. The sonata model consists of three main parts. These three sections are Exposition, Development Growth, and Recapitulation.
The so-called commentary section presents some musical ideas. In this section, we will discuss the transition between the two main subjects and the transition to the two main subjects.
“Migration” links the end of the first subject and the beginning of the second subject. Meanwhile, short music notes called ‘Codetta “used to end the section’s comment. What’s more, the ideas in the first part further broadcasted in the second main section, called “Growth.” In this section, the effect of ‘Modulation’ is widely used. It tries to give the fan a subtle enjoyment.
The last major part of the sonata form, the foreword section, contains the four parts of the commentary.
They are called_ First Subject, Migration, Second Subject and “Coda” respectively.
Thus, overall, the beginning and end of the sonata form are based on the same basic scale.
History of Western Music
When compared to the long history of sculpture, architecture, and literature in the western world, significant advances in western music came later. In fact, significant advances in music took place long after the collapse of the ancient classical civilizations of the Western world.
However, the Greek thinker Pythagoras introduced the most important concept in music, the vowel octave, in the sixth century BC. He scientifically explained how musical tones vary according to the given length of stages.
Moreover, the history of the vowel scales found in Western music can trace back to Greece. The Greeks knew of seven scales that were very similar to modern vowel scales. They commonly referred to as ‘modes’.
The Republic of Classical Greek thinker Plato (427-347 BC) in “The Republic”
Four types of ions described: Ionian, Lydian, Dorian, Fijian.
Ancient Greek Roman music considered too simplistic because it was monolingual.
With the collapse of the Roman Empire at the end of the fifth century CE, Europe had a dark age. Classical Greek-Roman civilization was long undermined. As the Catholic Church became one of the major social and political forces in Western Europe, Western music also became the dominant theme. It was until the 16th century that music became a religious facet, with the patriarchal patrons of the Catholic Church being a major part of the ruling class.
By the turn of the 15th century, the power of lay nobles had begun to spread, and they interested in patronizing musicians. This greatly influenced the progress of secular music.
In the eleventh century CE, the multilingual system was introduced into Europe. Initially, the polyphonic system was simplistic. The number of compositions at one time was limited to two.
In the early thirteenth century, musicians were able to produce three-dimensional compositions.
C. until the 1500s, multicolored music styles based on the price system, which grew within the framework of the music system. However, in the further development of the Multilanguage system, the online system became an obstacle. For this reason, the melody was obsolete and modern vowels being replaced.
With this, the multilingual system was further developed. These developments reached their climax between the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, when the Italian Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c. 1524-1594), In the hands of musicians such as the Englishman William Byrd (1543-1623), the Spanish Tomás Luis de Victoria (1535-1611 AD) and the Belgian Orlandus Lassus (1532-1592 AD).
With the Renaissance of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, medieval classical Greek-Roman civilization revived. New intellectuals and artists tried to create the world of man’s greatness and individuality, rather than merely tinkering with the “Italian Renaissance”. They began to study the underlying ancient Greek and Roman arts.
The attempt by the Greeks to mimic the speech style between the Speech and the Song used the Greeks. The. In the 1600s the opera, or the Western melodrama, was born.
The first opera was the periodic ‘Eurydice’ Shimla, written by the Italian composer Yakapo Perry (1561-1633).
Musicians at the time began to adopt the harmonic style, thinking that the multi-faceted method of singing a few tunes would not fit into a dramatic style that would suddenly change.
With the rise of the opera, there was an important social change in the history of Western music. That is, the opera houses began to perform in the famous opera houses. The first opera theater opened in Venice in 1637, followed by London, Paris, and Rome. As a result, concerts began to take place in an open market for the newly formed wealthy middle class and trading class. This was a very different alternative to feudal patronage. But the patronage system did not abolish it quickly. In fact, the patronage system further fostered the progress of music.
Musicals such as the opera dedicated to the secular sector, as well as the religious-oriented oratorio, were born. Emilio de Cavallario, an Italian, wrote the first oratorio.
The performance-free actors used in the “choir”, ‘orchestra’, and ‘solo singer’, were performed in opera as well as in public theaters.
The German Protestant Reformation also greatly influenced the rise of Western music. Martin Luther, a pioneer of the religious upheaval against the pope’s supreme authority in the Catholic Church, was a music lover. He replaced the Latin ‘Hymns’, which had designated by the Catholic Church for worship. These hymns Called chorale, used by the Lutherans for their singing.
Also popular were the oratorio-like ‘carols’, such as the ‘cantata’ (meaning, “sang”), and the ‘passion’ that commemorates Christ’s suffering on the cross. also played by such musical instruments as the Carol Prelude.
At that time, there were over 300 princes of various occupations in Germany, and their rulers were interested in the development of the arts, such as music, to show their prosperity and prosperity. Their patronage to musicians led to the development of musicals that were worldly oriented. Examples of these are musicals such as ‘Prelude and Fugue’ and Suite, which grew up around ‘dance styles’.
Because of the Italian Renaissance, the vowel harmonic style replaced by the multi-lingual style, but before long, the multi-lingual styles were again influencing Western music. This resulted in the emergence of a new style, characterized by both the polyphonic and vowel harmony styles.
The new style based on “Baroque music”, which reached its peak in the early eighteenth century. The Baroque era was an important period of Western music, a century full of new musical experiences and discoveries.
As well as great works such as the “Christmas Oratorio“, the “St. Matthew Passion“, and the “Mass in B Minor“, the ” Kunst der Fuge ” And Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), who created a number of works of art such as the ” Wohltemperiertes Klavier ” and the forty-eight fugue of Fugue) and the world’s greatest oratorio. Go ‘(Messiah), music such valuable works written in German Fredrik George Handel (1685-1759) were two great musicians who create handy. Henry Purcell (1658-1695) of the English and Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757) of Italy were two other notable musicians of the Baroque period.
By the end of the Baroque period, the preoccupation with baroque music had begun to shift elsewhere. Instead of the heavy-handed baroque style, the lightweight and pleasant ‘Galant style’ became popular.
During the Baroque period, polyphony, which reached its highest level, suppressed, and the vowel harmony once again known? These trends greatly contributed to the rise of “Classical Music“. Classical musicians who thought that the symmetry and rigidity of the binary form used by Baroque musicians were a hindrance in expressing musical thoughts more effectively began to adopt more flexible and relaxed forms of triadic forms.
Since the middle of the eighteenth century, orchestral music has reached the pinnacle of Western music. The sonata model contributed greatly to this development. Western orchestras consider the Modern Symphony to the most important musical instrument. Its founder was Franz Josef Heiden (1732-1809), a German. Hayden has produced more than a hundred symphonies, such as the London Symphony.
Another important orchestra popularized during this period. It is a modern Concerto. Concerto is a musical instrument written for orchestra and soloists. This is in the form of a sharp orchestral dialogue between the players’ orchestras and the orchestra. The German Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) wrote the greatest concertos of all time. He also wrote a number of musical works such as the ‘Requiem’, and the ‘Jupiter Symphony’.
By the end of the Baroque period, the opera, or Western melodrama, was in decline. The opera, which was once very free and lively, remained a slave to the Italian tradition in the late Baroque period. In the classical period, the western melodrama escaped tragedy and became a popular musical genre. For example, such as Mortzat’s “Figaro’s Wedding“, Where’s Don Giovanni, and “The Magic Flute“. A series of socio-economic changes that had a profound impact on Western music and musicians.
As the feudal socio-political system prevailed in Central Europe in the late eighteenth century, feudal patronage was common. Thus even the most talented musician had to seek the protection of aristocrats. Haydn and Mussed, the great musicians of the time, also had to wear clothes that their sponsor had ordered, and dine with the housekeepers. But in the eighteenth century, there was fierce opposition to the old patronage system. The opposite is the wealthy middle class (Bourgeoisie).
During this period, the bitter struggle between the wealthy middle class and the proprietor ruling class triggered the French Revolution. France’s feudal system collapsed after the revolution under the rule of the wealthy middle class. Instead, a democratic social system based on capitalism introduced. As the notion of independence, equality and brotherhood spread throughout Europe, the old patronage system collapsed, leading to a major musical boom. Classical musicians such as Mozart and Hayden believed that they should adopt standard musical forms and styles to convey their musical thoughts more effectively.
However, the attitude of later musicians in this era was very different.
They felt that they too had a place in society as people of great beauty. Thus, instead of creating music to suit the needs of patrons, they were inspired to write music that expresses their personal emotions and attitudes. But sometimes the classical forms and styles hindered them in this activity. In such cases, they did not hesitate to abandon those classical models.
Their emphasis was on expressing emotions and attitudes and not on modeling. Ludwig van Beethoven pioneered this new tradition known as the Romantic Movement. Beethoven, in fact, subordinated himself to classical forms, instead of becoming his own. Beethoven considered a Romantic musician, as well as classical music. His masterpieces are, on the whole, balanced and restraint. This is why Beethoven considered a classic romantic musician.
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
Beethoven (1770-1827) was undoubtedly one of the greatest musicians in the world. The greatest ‘symphony in the world written by Beethoven.
Some of the nine great symphonies he wrote include the” Eroica Symphony“, The “Pastoral Symphony“, The Enjoyment of Human Enlightenment and Love, The “Choral Symphony“. Beethoven wrote the world’s greatest piano-sonatas.
The “Pathetique Sonata“, tragic and violent, “Moonlight Sonata”, which produces kind feelings, “Appassionata sonata” is a powerful example.
He also created piano concertos such as “Emperor“, singing musicals such as “Mass in D“, and an opera called “Fidelio.” He also considered to the father of the modern Scherzo. Although he deaf at the end of his life, he continued to write great music.
Almost all the great musicians of the Romantic Movement were inspired by Beethoven’s music. The social and cultural background of the musician changed dramatically during this time. Many of the great musicians born during the classical and earlier periods knew little about the arts and literature other than their traditional profession of music. Nevertheless, most of the musicians of the Romantic Movement belonged to the newly affluent middle class or petty-bourgeoisie and were highly educated. In addition to music, many of the musicians who had a broad knowledge of the subjects of literature, philosophy, and law also acted as music writers and commentators. The earliest great Romantic musicians focused on orchestral music. For example, Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847), Robert Schumann (1810-1856), and Frederic Chopin (1810-1849) were among the three great musicians of the early 19th century.
Franz Schubert, an Austrian who considered the father of the modern Romantic song, wrote more than six hundred songs. Musicians such as Hector Berlioz of France, Franz Liszt of Hungary, Richard Wagner of Germany, and Johannes Brahms of Germany were among the greatest artists to produce such works.
Many great musicians from the mid-nineteenth century tried to convey national emotion through their music. They called Nationalist Composers.
This patriotic music was also an important component of the nineteenth-century Romantic Movement. In general, most of the western-born musicians were German. German music played an important role in northern and central Europe, and musicians in other countries were more than satisfied with imitating German styles. On the other hand, the music of Russia and Spain has influenced by Italian styles.
The Patriotic Music Movement was born in many countries to liberate their music from these German and Italian influences. This movement first established in Russia. The father of the Russian patriotic music movement is Mikhail Glinka (1804-1857).
Miley Balakirev (1837-1910), Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881), Cesar Quay (1835-1918), Nicolas Korsakoff (1844-1908) and Aleksandr Glazunov, (1833-1887), popularly known as The five musicians played a prominent role in the patriotic music business. The music of their great contemporary Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) said to reflect a cosmopolitan rather than a patriotic emotion.
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky masterpieces include operas such as “Pathetic Symphony”, “Queen of Spades” and ballet music such as Swan Lake and Sleeping Beauty. Tchaikovsky was the first Russian musician to become famous.
Many musicians of the 20th century tried to write music that was out of tune. Their music, known as “Atonality”, not based on a large or small scale.
One of the pioneers of this genre the French composer Claude Debussy (1862-1918). the founder of the so-called “Impressionists“, who tried to make sense of it rather than expressing it clearly in music.
He wrote “Afternoon of a Faun” and “Reflections in the Water,” Many experts say that the reason for abandoning the tonal system because of the chaotic political and social background of two world wars.
However, some musicians also interested in writing superior music while maintaining the tone of their work. An example is the Englishman Benjamin Britten (1913-1976), who wrote opera works such as Peter Grimm, and Billy Budd.
In the twentieth century, there was a strong reaction against the Romantic Movement. The movement, called Neoclassicism, The Russian Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) spearheaded that. Neo-classical musicians refused to express their excitement through music. Furthermore, they tended to adopt older forms and styles. During the 20th century, important Western musicians emerged from outside Europe. A major example of this is the rise of American music.